Laitlang um mi dihlak caah,A biapi taktak mi thawng thanh nak a chuak cang hi

Thawngpang

Leng Na Chuah Na Tin Than Poh Ah Na Mask Hmunthur Bawm Ah Hlonh Ta Leng kan chuah kan tin tikah, ka mask voikhat lawng ka hman rih, tha tuk rih ko tiah cabuai cung le pangtar ah fim kan hmang tawn, cubantuk cu hman bak ti lo ding.Leng ah ka chuakthan colh ko lai tiah kan hmancia mask cu hlonh lo in chikhat lawng ka hman rih,thatuk rih ko a pam tiah zaalchung chiah kan hmang tawn, hman bak ti lo ding.Leng kan chuah kan tin tik ah kan hman mi mask kha innchung ah luhpi lo inn ,asi khawh ahcun na inn leng hmunthur bawm ah hlonh kho colh law a tha .

Mask pakhat kha voikhat lawng hman ding.Na hmancia mi mask kha zaalchung le pangtar ah chiah le bah lo in, hmunthur bawm ah hlonh colh ding.Na hman mi mask suimilam 3 ah voikhat na thlen lai,(mask pakhat kha suimilam 3 leng hman lo ding Mask cawk lengmang tangka pam ti’n um hlah,tangka nak in na nunnak a sunglawi deuh.Na kut kha atu le tu i tawl peng, na kalnak kip ah hangel i ken philh hlah Asi khawh chung in lengchuah hrial cio hna usi.Kan zapi zawtnak thalo in kan luat cio nak hnga Tih nung ko tiah kan theihcia mi hna kha ” atak in tuah le hrialkhawh i zuam cio hna usi the chin post.

Thawngdang 𝑽𝒂𝒘𝒍𝒆𝒊 𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒃𝒊𝒂 𝒛𝒐𝒉 𝒕𝒊𝒌𝒂𝒉, 𝒌𝒖𝒎 𝒛𝒂𝒃𝒖 19 𝒉𝒍𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒖 “𝑻𝒉𝒂𝒛𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒊 𝒎𝒊 𝒖𝒌𝒕𝒖, 𝒕𝒆𝒊𝒕𝒖” (𝒎𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒊𝒔 𝒑𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓) 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒘𝒉 𝒂 𝒔𝒊. 𝑹𝒂𝒎 𝒑𝒂𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒂𝒅𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒑𝒂𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒂 𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒊 𝒂 𝒕𝒆𝒊 𝒕𝒊𝒌𝒂𝒉, 𝒔𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒉 𝒂 𝒕𝒍𝒂𝒊𝒉 𝒉𝒏𝒂, 𝒂 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒂 𝒑𝒆𝒏 𝒊 𝒂𝒏 𝒏𝒖𝒏𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏𝒈 𝒍𝒆 𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒂𝒉𝒐𝒍𝒉 𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒉𝒑𝒊𝒂𝒌 𝒉𝒏𝒂. 𝑻𝒂𝒌𝒕𝒂𝒌 𝒍𝒆 𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒊𝒕𝒆 𝒕𝒊 𝒂𝒉𝒄𝒖𝒏, 𝒔𝒂𝒍 (𝒔𝒍𝒂𝒗𝒆𝒔) 𝒛𝒖𝒂𝒕 𝒂 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒖𝒎𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈 𝒌𝒉𝒂 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒛𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒊𝒏 𝒎𝒊 𝒖𝒌 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒂 𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒏 𝒎𝒊 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒍 𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒂 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒔𝒊.

𝑵𝒊𝒉𝒊𝒏 𝒗𝒂𝒘𝒍𝒆𝒊 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒌𝒊𝒑 𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒃𝒊𝒂 𝒛𝒐𝒉𝒑𝒊𝒂𝒌 𝒉𝒏𝒂 𝒖 𝒔𝒊𝒉𝒍𝒂𝒘, 𝒎𝒊𝒅𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒉𝒖𝒉/𝒍𝒂𝒌 𝒎𝒊, 𝒉𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒘 𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒂𝒌𝒎𝒊 𝒕𝒃𝒌 𝒕𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒊 𝒂𝒏 𝒔𝒊 𝒍𝒂𝒊, 𝒄𝒖𝒄𝒖 𝒂 𝒇𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒎𝒊 𝒂 𝒔𝒊. 𝑲𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒉𝒇𝒂 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝑩𝒂𝒊𝒃𝒂𝒍 𝑩𝒊𝒂𝒌𝒂𝒎 𝑯𝒍𝒖𝒏 (𝑶𝑻) 𝒓𝒆𝒍 𝒕𝒊𝒌𝒂𝒉, 𝒕𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒊 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒉𝒎𝒖𝒉 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒘𝒉 𝒎𝒊 𝒄𝒖, 𝒎𝒊𝒅𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒗𝒂 𝒍𝒂𝒌, 𝒗𝒂 𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒍𝒆 𝒑𝒆𝒏 𝒕𝒃𝒌 𝒕𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒊 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒉𝒎𝒖𝒉. 𝑰𝒔𝒓𝒂𝒆𝒍 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒍𝒊𝒍𝒂 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈 𝒌𝒉𝒊 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒅𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒂𝒏 𝒗𝒂 𝒍𝒂𝒌 𝒎𝒊 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒂 𝒔𝒊. 𝑨𝒏𝒎𝒂𝒉 𝒍𝒂𝒘𝒏𝒈 𝒂𝒏 𝒔𝒊 𝒍𝒐, 𝒌𝒂𝒏𝒎𝒂𝒉 𝑳𝒂𝒊/𝑪𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒎𝒊 𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒃𝒊𝒂 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈 𝒂𝒉 “𝒌𝒉𝒖𝒂𝒌𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒍𝒆𝒊𝒅𝒐, 𝒍𝒆𝒊𝒅𝒐 𝒓𝒂𝒍 𝒍𝒊𝒂𝒏” 𝒕𝒊’𝒏 𝒌𝒉𝒖𝒂 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒍𝒆 𝒌𝒉𝒖𝒂 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕, 𝒑𝒉𝒖 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒍𝒆 𝒑𝒉𝒖 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒊’𝒏 𝒊 𝒅𝒐𝒉 𝒍𝒆 𝒊 𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒉, 𝒊 𝒄𝒉𝒊𝒎𝒉 𝒂 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒖𝒎. 𝑪𝒖𝒕𝒊 𝒂𝒏 𝒊 𝒅𝒐𝒉 𝒍𝒆 𝒄𝒉𝒊𝒎𝒉 𝒓𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒉 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒂𝒏 𝒎𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒃𝒂𝒘𝒊 𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒃𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒄𝒖𝒏 𝒔𝒂𝒍 𝒕𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒊 𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒏𝒈𝒆𝒊𝒉𝒑𝒉𝒂𝒉.

𝑺𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒊𝒏 𝒂𝒕𝒖 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂𝒉 𝒄𝒖𝒏 𝒌𝒉𝒂 𝒃𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒌𝒂𝒍𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏𝒈 𝒌𝒉𝒂 𝒂 𝒕𝒍𝒂𝒖 𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒈. 20𝒕𝒉 𝑭𝒆𝒃𝒓𝒖𝒂𝒓𝒚 2021 𝒂𝒉, 𝑼𝑵 𝑮𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒍-𝑺𝒆𝒄𝒓𝒆𝒕𝒂𝒓𝒚 𝑨𝒏𝒕𝒐𝒏𝒊𝒐 𝑮𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒔 𝒏𝒊𝒉, “𝑵𝒊𝒉𝒊𝒏 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂𝒉 𝒄𝒖𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒌𝒂𝒑 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒉𝒓𝒖𝒎 𝒉𝒎𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒊𝒏 𝒖𝒌𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒄𝒉𝒖𝒉 𝒍𝒆 𝒍𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒊𝒃𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒄𝒖 𝒉𝒎𝒖𝒏𝒉𝒎𝒂 𝒂 𝒏𝒈𝒆𝒊 𝒕𝒊 𝒍𝒐,” 𝒕𝒊 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒉 𝒂 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒂𝒉 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒉! 𝑲𝒂𝒏 𝑲𝒂𝒘𝒍𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒃𝒐𝒓𝒖𝒂𝒌 𝒖𝒎𝒕𝒖𝒏𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒊, 𝒂𝒄𝒖𝒏𝒈 𝒌𝒂 𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒉𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒎𝒊 “𝑴𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒊𝒔 𝒑𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓” 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒛𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒊𝒏 𝒎𝒊 𝒖𝒌 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂𝒉 𝒌𝒊𝒓𝒑𝒊 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊𝒎𝒉, 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒊𝒏 𝑮𝒁 𝒉𝒊 𝒛𝒆𝒊𝒕𝒍𝒖𝒌 𝒊𝒏 𝒅𝒂𝒉 𝒌𝒉𝒂 𝒉𝒍𝒂𝒏 𝑩𝒂𝒃𝒚 𝑩𝒐𝒐𝒎𝒆𝒓 𝑮𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 (𝑩𝑩𝑮-1946-1964) 𝒏𝒂𝒌𝒊𝒏 𝒗𝒂𝒘𝒍𝒆𝒊 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂𝒏 𝒅𝒂𝒘𝒊 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒘𝒉 𝒅𝒆𝒖𝒉 𝒕𝒊 𝒍𝒆, 𝒃𝒊𝒂𝒌𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒂𝒉 𝒔𝒊𝒔𝒆𝒉, 𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒌𝒉𝒆𝒍 𝒂𝒉 𝒔𝒊𝒔𝒆𝒉, 𝒄𝒂𝒘𝒏𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒍𝒆 𝒉𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒍𝒉𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈 𝒂𝒉 𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒅𝒆𝒖𝒉 𝒕𝒊 𝒌𝒉𝒂, 𝒂 𝒉𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒍 𝒓𝒖𝒂 𝒍𝒐 𝒎𝒂𝒘 𝒛𝒆𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒌? 𝑵𝒖 𝒕𝒍𝒂𝒊𝒉𝒉𝒓𝒆𝒎 𝒊𝒏 𝒌𝒂 𝒕𝒍𝒂𝒊𝒉𝒉𝒓𝒆𝒎 𝒍𝒂𝒊 𝒊 𝒄𝒐𝒛𝒂𝒉 𝒌𝒂 𝒌𝒂𝒍𝒑𝒊 𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒉 𝒕𝒊 𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒌𝒉𝒊𝒏 𝒂𝒊 𝒓𝒖𝒂𝒉 𝒔𝒖𝒂𝒍 𝒅𝒊𝒑𝒅𝒆𝒑, 𝒂 𝒄𝒂𝒘𝒌 𝒌𝒉𝒐 𝒕𝒊 𝒍𝒐. 𝑵𝒊𝒉𝒊𝒏 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒖, 𝑰𝑻 (𝑰𝒏𝒇𝒐𝒓𝒎𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝑻𝒆𝒄𝒉𝒏𝒐𝒍𝒐𝒈𝒚) 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒊, 𝒇𝒊𝒎 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒈. 𝑻𝒉𝒍𝒖𝒂𝒌 𝒊𝒏 𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏, 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒂𝒎𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒍𝒆 𝒉𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒍𝒉𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒌𝒉𝒂 𝒕𝒉𝒖𝒕𝒑𝒊 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒕𝒊 𝒍𝒐. 𝑲𝒉𝒂 𝒉𝒍𝒂𝒏 𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒖𝒌 𝒍𝒊𝒐 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒎 𝒄𝒖, 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒈𝒏𝒈𝒐𝒓 𝒗𝒊𝒂𝒓 𝒊𝒏 𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒉 𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒉 𝒑𝒆𝒊, 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒑𝒂𝒍𝒆 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒎𝒉 𝒉𝒏𝒂 𝒍𝒐 𝒊 𝒔𝒊 𝒌𝒐, 𝒂𝒕𝒖 𝑮𝒁 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒔𝒂 𝒍𝒆 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒉𝒍𝒂𝒏 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒖𝒏𝒈 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒔𝒂 𝒂𝒊 𝒍𝒐 𝒕𝒊 𝒍𝒐. 𝑪𝒖𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒉 𝒖𝒊𝒉𝒓𝒖𝒕 𝑴𝑨𝑯 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒄𝒂𝒌𝒆𝒊 𝒎𝒆𝒊 𝒂𝒊 𝒕𝒍𝒂𝒊𝒉 𝒔𝒖𝒂𝒍 𝒌𝒂 𝒉𝒆𝒊 𝒕𝒊 𝒌𝒐.

𝑪𝒖𝒍𝒂𝒘𝒏𝒈 𝒔𝒊 𝒍𝒐, 𝑲𝒂𝒘𝒍𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒃𝒊𝒂 𝒂𝒉 𝒕𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒄𝒖𝒏𝒈 𝒎𝒊 𝒗𝒊𝒂𝒍𝒕𝒆 𝒉𝒊 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒕𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒌, 𝒎𝒂𝒉𝒕𝒆 𝒌𝒉𝒖𝒂𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒂𝒊𝒓𝒆𝒍𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒂 𝒏𝒈𝒆𝒊 𝒎𝒊, 𝒎𝒂𝒉𝒕𝒆 𝒂𝒊 𝒖𝒌𝒎𝒊, 𝒎𝒂𝒉𝒕𝒆 𝒂𝒊 𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒊𝒂𝒎 𝒎𝒊, 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒍𝒆 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒆𝒊 𝒂 𝒉𝒖𝒎𝒉𝒂𝒌 𝒛𝒖𝒏𝒈𝒛𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒊 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒔𝒊 𝒉𝒏𝒂. 𝑴𝒊𝒓𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒛𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒎𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒊 𝒂𝒏 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒆𝒊 𝒉𝒏𝒖 𝒄𝒆𝒐 𝒊𝒏, 𝑲𝒂𝒘𝒍 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒂𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒆 𝒄𝒂 𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊 𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒍𝒂𝒌𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒏𝒈𝒆𝒊𝒉 𝒌𝒉𝒂 𝒂 𝒔𝒊. 𝑩𝒆𝒊𝒃𝒂𝒉𝒂𝒂𝒎 𝒍𝒐𝒊𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒊 𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒎 𝒍𝒐 𝒎𝒊 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒔𝒊. 𝒁𝒆𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒉𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒉, 𝒂𝒏𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝑲𝒂𝒘𝒍 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒌𝒂𝒑 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒛𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝑩𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒂𝒍𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔 2 𝒂𝒏 𝒏𝒈𝒆𝒊𝒉 𝒍𝒊𝒐 𝒂𝒉, 𝑳𝒂𝒊 𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒌𝒂𝒑 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒛𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒊 𝒃𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒂𝒍𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔 4 𝒂𝒏 𝒔𝒊 𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊 (𝑹𝒆𝒗. 𝒁𝒂 𝑻𝒉𝒂𝒘𝒏𝒈 𝑪𝒊𝒏 𝒃𝒊𝒂). 𝑨𝒕𝒖 𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝑲𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒏 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒂 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒆𝒎 𝒍𝒐𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒍𝒆 𝒉𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈 𝒌𝒉𝒊, 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝑳𝒂𝒊 𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒌𝒂𝒑 𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒘𝒏 𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒉 𝑲𝒂𝒘𝒍 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒔𝒂𝒘𝒎 𝒉𝒏𝒂 𝒊 𝒇𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒖𝒌𝒊𝒏 𝑲𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒏 𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒉𝒏𝒂 𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒉 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊. 𝑷𝒉𝒖𝒏𝒅𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒊𝒏 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒉𝒊𝒎 𝒂𝒉𝒄𝒖𝒏, 𝒂 𝒏𝒆𝒑𝒕𝒆 𝒍𝒐 𝒎𝒊 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒔𝒊. 𝑷𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒉𝒆𝒕 𝑴𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒉 𝒏𝒊𝒉, “𝑴𝒂𝒘 𝑱𝒖𝒅𝒆𝒂 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝑩𝒆𝒕𝒉𝒍𝒆𝒉𝒆𝒎 𝒌𝒉𝒖𝒂, 𝒏𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒎𝒂𝒉 𝒄𝒖 𝑱𝒖𝒅𝒂𝒉 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒌𝒉𝒖𝒂𝒑𝒊 𝒉𝒏𝒂 𝒍𝒂𝒌𝒂𝒉 𝒂 𝒉𝒎𝒆 𝒃𝒊𝒌 𝒏𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒏𝒂𝒊𝒔𝒂𝒊 𝒍𝒐; 𝒛𝒆𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒉𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒉 𝒏𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒎𝒂𝒉 𝒄𝒉𝒖𝒏𝒈𝒊𝒏 𝒉𝒓𝒖𝒂𝒊𝒕𝒖 𝒑𝒂𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕, 𝒌𝒂 𝒎𝒊 𝑰𝒔𝒓𝒂𝒆𝒍 𝒎𝒊 𝒉𝒏𝒂 𝒕𝒖𝒖𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒍 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒎𝒊 𝒄𝒖 𝒂 𝒄𝒉𝒖𝒂𝒌 𝒍𝒂𝒊,” 𝒂 𝒕𝒊 𝒃𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂 𝒔𝒊.

𝑲𝒂𝒏 𝒏𝒆𝒑𝒕𝒆 𝒍𝒐, 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒏𝒊𝒂𝒎 𝒉𝒍𝒆𝒊 𝒍𝒐., 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒉𝒎𝒆 𝒉𝒍𝒆𝒊 𝒇𝒂𝒘𝒏 𝒍𝒐. 𝑨𝒕𝒖 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈 𝒂𝒉 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒌𝒂𝒑 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒛𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒊 𝒂 𝒅𝒆𝒓 𝒉𝒍𝒆𝒊 𝒍𝒐. 𝑵𝒊𝒉𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒉 𝑪𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒄𝒉𝒖𝒏𝒈 𝒍𝒂𝒘𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒉 𝒃𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒂𝒍𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔 8 𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒕𝒊 𝒔𝒊 (𝑪𝑵𝑭 𝒍𝒆𝒊 𝒃𝒊𝒂𝒄𝒉𝒊𝒎 𝒏𝒂𝒘𝒍𝒏𝒈𝒆𝒊 𝒃𝒊𝒂). 𝑲𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈, 𝒄𝒊𝒓𝒖𝒎, 𝒑𝒉𝒂𝒘-𝒏𝒂𝒎 𝒍𝒆 𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒆 𝒍𝒂𝒘𝒏𝒈 𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒑𝒊 𝒂 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒅𝒐 𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒎 𝒎𝒊 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒔𝒊 𝒅𝒂𝒌𝒂𝒘. 𝑪𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒕𝒆 𝒄𝒖𝒏 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒍𝒆 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒗𝒂𝒘𝒍𝒆𝒊, 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒏𝒖𝒏𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏𝒈 𝒍𝒆 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒂𝒉𝒐𝒍𝒉 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒖𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒊 𝒏𝒊𝒉𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒉𝒊𝒎 𝒓𝒊𝒉.

𝑨𝒅𝒐𝒏𝒈𝒉𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒂𝒉, 𝑲𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒉𝒇𝒂 𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒃𝒊𝒂 𝒕𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒊 𝒍𝒂𝒌𝒂𝒉, 𝑪𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏 𝑪𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒅𝒆 𝒉𝒊 𝒑𝒉𝒊𝒍𝒉 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒘𝒉 𝒍𝒐𝒎𝒊 𝒑𝒂𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒗𝒆. 𝑨𝒕𝒖 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒂𝒉 “𝑪𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒅𝒆” 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊 𝒍𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒎𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒎𝒊 𝒃𝒊𝒂𝒇𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒂 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒊, 𝑪𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏 𝑪𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒅𝒆 𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒃𝒊𝒂 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒔𝒊. 𝑯𝒊 𝑪𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏 𝑪𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒅𝒆 𝒄𝒖 𝑰𝒔𝒓𝒂𝒆𝒍 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒊 𝒄𝒖𝒉 𝒓𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒉 𝑴𝒖𝒔𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝒍𝒆 𝑲𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒉𝒇𝒂 𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒘𝒉𝒏𝒂𝒌/𝒕𝒖𝒌𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒉𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒊 𝒌𝒉𝒊 𝒔𝒊. 𝑯𝒐𝒍𝒚 𝑾𝒂𝒓 𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒊 𝒊 𝑯𝒐𝒍𝒚 𝑪𝒊𝒕𝒚/𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒌𝒖𝒍𝒉 𝒄𝒉𝒖𝒏𝒈 (𝑱𝒆𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒍𝒆𝒎 𝒕𝒆𝒍𝒉 𝒊𝒏) 𝒕𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒊 𝑴𝒖𝒔𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝒊𝒏 𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒂𝒌𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒄𝒉𝒖𝒂𝒌 𝒎𝒊 𝒓𝒂𝒍 𝒂 𝒔𝒊. 𝑲𝒖𝒎 𝒛𝒂𝒃𝒖 11𝒕𝒉, 12𝒕𝒉, 𝒍𝒆 13𝒕𝒉 (1096-1291) 𝒍𝒊𝒐 𝒉𝒓𝒂𝒘𝒏𝒈 𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒎𝒊 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒊, 𝑩𝒚𝒛𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝑬𝒎𝒑𝒊𝒓𝒆 𝑨𝒍𝒆𝒙𝒊𝒐𝒔 𝑰 𝑲𝒐𝒎𝒏𝒆𝒏𝒐𝒔 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝑯𝒐𝒍𝒚 𝑳𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒕𝒊 𝒍𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒎𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒎𝒊 𝑰𝒔𝒓𝒂𝒆𝒍 𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒂 𝒑𝒆𝒏 𝒍𝒊𝒐 𝒂𝒉 𝒂 𝒔𝒊. 𝑩𝒚𝒛𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝑱𝒆𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒍𝒆𝒎 𝒂 𝒖𝒌 𝒍𝒊𝒐 𝒂𝒉 𝑺𝒆𝒍𝒋𝒖𝒌 𝑻𝒖𝒓𝒌𝒔 (𝑴𝒖𝒔𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝑻𝒖𝒓𝒌𝒔) 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒊 𝑱𝒆𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒍𝒆𝒎 𝒌𝒉𝒖𝒂𝒑𝒊 𝒕𝒆𝒍𝒉 𝒊𝒏 𝒉𝒎𝒖𝒏 𝒛𝒆𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒘𝒛𝒂𝒕 𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒂𝒌. 𝑪𝒖𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒉 𝑩𝒚𝒛𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝑬𝒎𝒑𝒊𝒓𝒆 𝑨𝒍𝒆𝒙𝒊𝒐𝒔 𝑰 𝑲𝒐𝒎𝒏𝒆𝒏𝒐𝒔 𝒂 𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒊𝒉𝒄𝒉𝒊𝒂, 𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒖𝒏𝒈𝒇𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒊 𝑷𝒐𝒑𝒆 𝑼𝒓𝒃𝒂𝒏 𝑰𝑰 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒂𝒉 𝒃𝒂𝒘𝒎𝒉 𝒂 𝒗𝒂 𝒉𝒂𝒍. 𝑴𝒖𝒔𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝒌𝒖𝒕 𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒂𝒉 𝑱𝒆𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒍𝒆𝒎 𝒖𝒎 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒊 𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒄𝒖 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒌𝒉𝒐 𝒍𝒐, 𝒄𝒖𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒉 𝒌𝒂 𝒃𝒂𝒘𝒎 𝒍𝒂𝒘 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒂𝒌 `𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒂𝒊 𝒂 𝒕𝒊.

𝑪𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒌𝒂𝒉 1095 𝒂𝒉 𝑷𝒐𝒑𝒆 𝑼𝒓𝒃𝒂𝒏 𝑰𝑰 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝑪𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒄𝒊𝒍 𝒐𝒇 𝑪𝒍𝒆𝒓𝒎𝒐𝒏𝒕 𝒂 𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒉𝒉𝒂𝒘𝒉 𝒉𝒏𝒂 𝒊 18-28 𝑵𝒐𝒗𝒆𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓 𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒉. 𝑯𝒊 𝒍𝒊𝒐 𝒂𝒉 𝑲𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒉𝒇𝒂𝒎𝒊 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒓𝒂𝒍 𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒎𝒏𝒂𝒎 𝒊 𝒕𝒍𝒂𝒊𝒉 𝒊𝒏 𝑩𝒚𝒛𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝑬𝒎𝒑𝒊𝒓𝒆 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒃𝒂𝒘𝒎𝒉 𝒍𝒂𝒊 𝒊 𝑴𝒖𝒍𝒔𝒊𝒎 𝒌𝒖𝒕 𝒊𝒏 𝑱𝒆𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒍𝒆𝒎 𝒌𝒉𝒖𝒂𝒍𝒊𝒑𝒊 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒂𝒌 `𝒉𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒂𝒊, 𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒉 𝒂 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒉. 𝑪𝒖𝒄𝒖 “𝑭𝒊𝒓𝒔𝒕 𝑪𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒅𝒆”- 𝒂 𝒗𝒐𝒊𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝑲𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒉𝒇𝒂 𝒍𝒆 𝑴𝒖𝒔𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝒌𝒖𝒕𝒅𝒐𝒉𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒕𝒊 𝒂 𝒔𝒊. 𝑪𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒄𝒖𝒏 𝑲𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒉𝒇𝒂 𝒑𝒂𝒘𝒍 𝒄𝒖 8 𝑪𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒅𝒆𝒔 𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒓𝒂𝒍 𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒐 𝒊 𝑴𝒖𝒔𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝒂𝒏 𝒅𝒐𝒉 𝒉𝒏𝒂. 𝑨𝒕𝒖 𝒌𝒂𝒏𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝑪𝒉𝒊𝒏 𝒗𝒊𝒂𝒍𝒕𝒆 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒊, 𝑪𝒉𝒓𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒏 𝑪𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒂𝒅𝒆 𝒃𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒊𝒏 𝒊 𝒇𝒖𝒏𝒕𝒐𝒎 𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒏 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒈, 𝒎𝒂𝒉 𝒑𝒆𝒐 𝒊𝒏 𝒑𝒆𝒐 𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒏 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒕𝒊 𝒍𝒐, 𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒃𝒂𝒍𝒊𝒔𝒎 (𝒎𝒂𝒉 𝒑𝒆𝒏𝒈 𝒍𝒆 𝒕𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒈 𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒉) 𝒂𝒉 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒍𝒖𝒏𝒈 𝒃𝒖𝒏𝒈𝒉 𝒅𝒊𝒉 𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒕𝒊 𝒍𝒐; 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏 𝒂𝒉 𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕 (𝒘𝒆 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒐𝒏𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝑪𝒉𝒊𝒏) 𝒍𝒖𝒏𝒈𝒑𝒖𝒕 𝒉𝒆, 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏, 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒎, 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒏𝒖𝒏𝒑𝒉𝒖𝒏𝒈 𝒍𝒆 𝒄𝒂𝒉𝒐𝒍𝒉 𝒉𝒖𝒎𝒉𝒂𝒌 𝒊𝒏 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒑𝒂 𝑴𝑨𝑯 𝒅𝒐𝒉𝒕𝒊 𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒔𝒊. 𝑯𝒊 𝒃𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒖𝒌 𝒍𝒊𝒐 𝒕𝒉𝒍𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒖 𝒍𝒆𝒊 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒑𝒂𝒍𝒆 𝒄𝒉𝒆𝒖𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒃𝒊𝒂 𝒍𝒆 𝒉𝒍𝒂 𝒂 𝒖𝒎 𝒑𝒂𝒉; 𝑩𝒂𝒊𝒃𝒂𝒍 𝒏𝒊𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒍𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒖 𝒎𝒊𝒕 𝒍𝒂𝒘𝒏𝒈 𝒊𝒏 𝒄𝒖𝒂𝒏𝒉 𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒍𝒐, 𝒕𝒂𝒌𝒔𝒂 𝒏𝒖𝒏𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒊 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒌𝒉𝒐 𝒍𝒐𝒎𝒊 𝑷𝒂𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒂𝒏 𝒃𝒊𝒂 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒕𝒊 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒈 𝒉𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒍𝒉𝒄𝒉𝒊𝒉 𝒂 𝒉𝒂𝒖. 𝑪𝒖𝒄𝒂𝒂𝒉 𝒉𝒊 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒓𝒂𝒍 𝒅𝒐𝒉𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒂𝒉, 𝒌𝒂𝒏𝒎𝒂𝒉𝒍𝒆 𝒕𝒊 𝒌𝒉𝒂𝒘𝒉 𝒕𝒂𝒘𝒌 𝒄𝒊𝒐 𝒊𝒏 𝒅𝒐𝒉 𝒂 𝒉𝒂𝒖. 𝑪𝒖𝒕𝒊 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒅𝒐𝒉 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒂𝒉𝒄𝒖𝒏, 𝒌𝒖𝒕𝒕𝒆 𝒛𝒂𝒘𝒏𝒈𝒛𝒂 𝒕𝒊 𝒑𝒆𝒊 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒄𝒖, 𝒕𝒆𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒌 𝒄𝒖 𝒌𝒂𝒏 𝒕𝒂 𝒂 𝒔𝒊 𝒌𝒐 𝒍𝒂𝒊 Carson TwinTwin.

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